Thailand resmi legalkan pernikahan sesama jenis – Apa dampaknya ke komunitas LGBT di Indonesia?

Perayaaan RUU pernikahan sesama jenis di Thailand
Keterangan gambar,Komunitas LGBTQ+ di Thailand merayakan pengumuman disahkannya RUU kesetaraan pernikahan oleh Senat pada Selasa (18/6)

Thailand selama ini dianggap sebagai tujuan wisata di Asia Tenggara yang ramah bagi mereka dengan identitas gender dan orientasi seksual yang beragam – termasuk dari Indonesia. Dengan disahkannya pernikahan sesama jenis di Thailand, apakah orang-orang LGBTQ+ di Indonesia terdorong untuk pindah ke negara itu demi mendapat ruang yang nyaman?

“‘Ya, sudah, kita nikah saja, yuk?’” kata Langit (bukan nama sebenarnya) menirukan candaan teman kencannya yang orang Thailand menyusul diloloskannya rancangan undang-undang (RUU) kesetaraan pernikahan oleh Senat Thailand.

Di bawah UU ini, orang-orang dengan identitas gender dan orientasi seksual yang beragam dapat menikah – termasuk pasangan homoseksual.

“[Cuma bercanda] tetapi dengan [dia] bilang begitu aku kepikiran mungkin dengan dilegalkan aku jadi punya jalan yang lebih mudah untuk dapat permanent residence [izin tinggal permanen].”

Langit, 26 tahun, sudah menetap di Bangkok selama 1,5 tahun terakhir. Laki-laki gay asal Bandung, Jawa Barat, itu bekerja di sebuah perusahaan bidang media sosial di Thailand.

Sebagai bagian dari komunitas LGBTQ+, Langit mengaku sudah mengalami perundungan terkait identitas seksualnya sejak masih remaja yang masih membekas di pikirannya sampai sekarang.

Teman kencannya tahu akan hal itu.

Langit mendengar kabar RUU kesetaraan pernikahan diloloskan saat tengah bersantai di sebuah kafe di Nonthaburi – kota di luar Bangkok pada Selasa (18/6).

“Aku senang… tapi enggak terlalu kaget karena sudah mendengar desas-desusnya sejak lama,” ujarnya kepada wartawan Amahl Azwar yang melaporkan untuk BBC News Indonesia pada Rabu (19/6).

Di Thailand, Langit mengaku merasa lebih terlindungi, bahkan sebelum Senat melolos RUU kesetaraan pernikahan. Dia mengaku bisa lebih mengekspresikan diri di negara itu dan dapat dengan lugas menyebut identitasnya ke orang asing sekalipun.

“Kalau boleh jujur, perbandingan 180 derajat. Sebagai gay jauh lebih tenang, tenteram, nyaman, dan aman dibanding Indonesia,” ujar Langit yang juga sempat mengikuti parade LGBT Pride di Bangkok.

Gagasan untuk pindah secara permanen ke Thailand dengan diloloskannya RUU kesetaraan pernikahan ini memang ada di benaknya, tetapi Langit mengaku lebih memikirkan nasib teman-temannya di Indonesia.

“Aku merasa bersyukur [karena privilese tinggal di Thailand], tapi di satu sisi juga merasa bersalah. Sampai sekarang kalau ada lowongan kerja di kantorku, aku langsung membagikannya ke teman-teman LGBTQ+. Kalau bisa sih semua teman-teman queer di Indonesia pindah ke Thailand,” ujar Langit.

Salah satu teman Langit yang sedang berupaya untuk pindah ke Thailand adalah Krisan (juga bukan nama sebenarnya), 27 tahun. Dia adalah perempuan lesbian asal Bandung, Jawa Barat.

Krisan mengaku berasal dari keluarga Muslim yang konservatif. Sejak 2021, dia sudah memutuskan hubungan dengan keluarganya yang hingga kini masih berusaha mencarinya untuk ikut terapi konversi.

“[Keluarga] sampai-sampai mencari aku ke tempat mantan [pacar] aku dan bawa-bawa tukang pukul,” tutur Krisan dengan suara pelan.

Langit sangat mendukung perjuangan Krisan supaya bisa pindah.

“Aku tahu latar belakang. Aku berusaha biar dia bisa pindah ke sini,” ujarnya.

Thailand jadi tujuan bagi LGBT asal Indonesia?

pasangan LGBTQ+ di Thailand merayakan pengesahan RUU kesetaraan pernikahan dengan berparade menaiki tuk-tuk (moda transportasi tradisional setempat)
Keterangan gambar,Bagi komunitas LGBTQ+ Thailand, disahkannya RUU kesetaraan pernikahan adalah sebuah “kemenangan”

Direktur Eksekutif Koalisi Pasifik Asia untuk Kesehatan Seksual Pria (APCOM), Midnight Poonkasetwattana, yang berbasis di Bangkok, mengatakan komunitas LGBTQ+ di Thailand sudah menanti pengesahan RUU kesetaraan pernikahan selama satu dekade.

“Rasanya luar biasa menyaksikan pemungutan suara Senat kemarin mayoritas mendukung pernikahan LGBTQI – apalagi ini terjadi pada bulan Pride. Saya harap negara-negara lain juga mengambil langkah berani untuk menjamin setiap orang dapat memperoleh akses yang sama, termasuk LGBTQI,” ujar Midnight dalam surat elektronik yang dikirim kepada BBC News Indonesia.

Midnight pun mengakui bahwa dari segi ekonomi, Thailand banyak diuntungkan karena dipandang sebagai negara yang menerima orang-orang LGBTQ+, bahkan sebelum RUU kesetaraan pernikahan disahkan.

Dengan adanya UU kesetaraan pernikahan ini, Midnight mengatakan akan ada peningkatan tajam wisatawan LGBTQI dari Indonesia, serta negara-negara lain di kawasan ini, yang datang ke Thailand “untuk mengeksplorasi kemungkinan hidup autentik sesuai jati diri mereka tanpa harus bersembunyi, malu, atau takut akan hukuman, dibandingkan dengan negara asal mereka.”

Bella Aubree, Koordinator Nasional Inti Muda Indonesia dan pegiat isu-isu sosial, menyebut Thailand sering dianggap sebagai destinasi yang ideal dan ramah bagi teman-teman LGBTQ+, termasuk untuk orang-orang transgender yang ingin melakukan terapi penggantian hormon ataupun tindakan bedah untuk mengubah alat kelamin.

“Saya sering berbincang dengan kawan LGBTQ+ yang ingin menikah. Mereka berangan-angan untuk dapat pindah, tinggal, dan menikah di Belanda. Saya rasa Thailand akan menjadi negara tujuan menggantikan Belanda karena Thailand juga cukup dekat dari Indonesia,” ujar Bella.

“Jika situasi di Indonesia sudah benar-benar tidak aman bagi teman-teman LGBTQ+, kemungkinan LGBTQ+ yang mampu dapat berpindah ke sana.”

Warga Banda Aceh dihukum cambuk karena melakukan seks sejenis pada 23 Mei 2017
Keterangan gambar,Di Indonesia, komunitas LGBTQ+ masih mendapat persekusi. Di Aceh, hukuman cambuk sebanyak 85 kali menanti mereka yang ketahuan berhubungan seks sesama jenis.

Walaupun begitu, Bella mengingatkan bahwa tidak semua orang-orang LGBTQ+ di Indonesia mampu ataupun berdaya untuk berpindah ke negara lain.

“Bagaimana dengan mereka yang masih harus berjuang untuk mencari makan? Kita tetap harus bersama-sama memperjuangkan hak-hak LGBTQ+ karena sejatinya hak yang kita tuntut adalah hak sebagai manusia dan hak sebagai warga negara. Oleh karena itu, negara harus hadir untuk memenuhi hak tersebut,” ujar Bella.

Orang-orang LGBTQ+ Indonesia yang saat ini tinggal di Thailand pun tidak semua berpikir untuk pindah secara permanen.

Reno (bukan nama sebenarnya), pria gay 28 tahun asal Sumatera Barat yang sudah tinggal dan bekerja di Bangkok hampir dua tahun belakangan, mengaku masih memikirkan keluarganya.

“Walaupun orang tua dan keluarga besarku tidak menerimaku [sebagai gay], tapi aku masih merasa punya tanggung jawab terhadap mereka,” ujarnya.

Potensi diskriminasi baru

Protes anti-LGBT di Indonesia
Keterangan gambar,Di Indonesia, komunitas LGBTQ+ masih mendapat protes atas keberadaan mereka

Pemberitaan diloloskannya RUU kesetaraan pernikahan oleh Senat Thailand mendapat reaksi dari warganet Indonesia.

Berdasarkan penelusuran BBC News Indonesia, komentar-komentar negatif bermunculan di media sosial dan kolom komentar di berbagai laman berita seperti Kompas.com.

“Negara rusak yang akan hancur dengan sendirinya,” tulis seorang warganet.

“Paling nanti datang tsunami sama gempa bumi dahsyat,” tulis satu orang lainnya.

Dede Oetomo, sosiolog Universitas Airlangga yang juga pencetus GAYa Nusantara – organisasi pegiat hak LGBT pertama di Indonesia – menyebut komentar-komentar negatif sudah bisa diantisipasi.

“Komentar sebagian warganet Indonesia yang jahat-jahat dan menunjukkan ke-bigot-annya [kefanatikan] diikuti argumentasi agama yang sudah usang banget seperti ‘Thailand akan kena azab bencana alam’ atau dikaitkan dengan menyebarnya HIV,” ujar Dede.

“Sebagai pendidik saya sedih, tapi, ya, begitulah kualitas sebagian pendidikan kita.”

Menurut Dede, masalah yang paling mendesak bagi komunitas LGBTQ+ Indonesia saat ini masih merujuk kepada hal-hal yang mendasar seperti masih adanya diskriminasi di bidang pendidikan dan pekerjaan.

Koordinator Nasional Inti Muda Indonesia, Bella Aubree, mencemaskan pengesahan RUU kesetaraan pernikahan justru akan membuat para pembuat kebijakan di Indonesia menanggapinya dengan membuat rancangan peraturan yang diskriminatif sebagai bentuk pencegahan agar hal itu tidak terjadi di Indonesia.

“Hal ini mungkin saja terjadi mengingat beberapa tahun kebelakang cukup banyak rancangan peraturan daerah yang diskriminatif terhadap LGBTQ+,” ujarnya.

Berdasarkan data Arus Pelangi, ada sekitar 45 regulasi anti-LGBTQ+ di Indonesia mulai tahun 2006 sampai 2018. Jumlah regulasi ini cenderung meningkat menjelang Pilkada dan Pemilu seperti terlihat di tahun 2016, 2018 dan 2023.

Andreas Harsono dari Human Rights Watch Indonesia menyoroti RUU Revisi Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (RKUHP) Tahun 2022 yang mengkriminalkan orang-orang LGBTQ+.

“Semua peraturan ini perlu ditinggalkan dan tentu perlu dicabut,” tutur Andreas.

Akan tetapi, Hidayat Nur Wahid, anggota Komisi VIII Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat yang membidangi isu agama dan sosial dari Fraksi Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) dalam keterangan resminya menyebut “perkawinan sejenis” di Thailand justru harus diwaspadai.

“Seluruh pemangku kepentingan di Indonesia, baik pemerintah, DPR, ormas-ormas keagamaan dan masyarakat luas, harus waspada agar penyimpangan laku seksual dengan pernikahan sejenis semacam ini tidak dijadikan dalih untuk diperbolehkannya nikah sejenis di Indonesia, yang menjadi pintu penyebaran penyimpangan LGBT secara lebih luas lagi,” ujar Hidayat yang juga Wakil Ketua Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat.

“Meski Thailand memiliki kedaulatannya sendiri, Raja Thailand perlu mempertimbangkan RUU itu dengan bijaksana. Karena apabila itu disahkan, maka itu dapat berdampak buruk dan mencoreng kawasan Asia Tenggara atau ASEAN,” tuturnya lagi.

Hidayat menyebut salah satu yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan segera menyiapkan dan membahas RUU Anti-Propaganda Penyimpangan Seksual untuk masuk ke Program Legislasi Nasional (Prolegnas) 2020-2024

“Ini yang harus kita siapkan di DPR bersama dengan Pemerintah. Apabila tidak bisa pada DPR periode ini, ini bisa diteruskan untuk diperjuangkan hingga sah di DPR berikutnya,” jelasnya.

Kepada BBC News Indonesia, Hidayat mengatakan aturan-aturan anti-LGBT bukanlah sesuatu yang diskriminatif. Menurutnya, tindakan yang tidak sesuai dengan hukum dan konstitusi apabila dibiarkan malah bisa disebut sebagai “diskriminasi”.

“Karena perilaku lain yang tak sesuai dengan Konstitusi dan Undang-Undang seperti judi online larangannya juga diatur dalam peraturan perundangan,” ujarnya.

Bella Aubree dari Inti Muda menyebut para pegiat saat ini sedang bersama-sama melakukan advokasi, mendesak pemerintah Indonesia untuk segera mengesahkan UU Anti Diskriminasi yang dapat menjadi peluang bagi kelompok rentan termasuk teman-teman LGBTQ+ untuk mendapatkan perlindungan dari diskriminasi yang terjadi.

“Harapannya melalui UU Anti Diskriminasi ini dapat menjadi langkah awal untuk menciptakan lingkungan aman bagi kelompok rentan termasuk LGBTQ+,” ujarnya.

Kembali ke Thailand, RUU kesetaraan pernikahan membutuhkan persetujuan Raja Maha Vajiralongkorn dan berlaku 120 hari setelah dipublikasikan surat kabar resmi kerajaan – artinya pernikahan sesama jenis pertama yang resmi di Thailand bisa jadi dilakukan tahun.

Meski begitu, Langit mengingatkan hal ini bukan berarti komunitas LGBTQ+ di Thailand 100% terbebas dari diskriminasi.

“Jangan terlalu terlena sampai ngelupain kalau sebetulnya masih ada orang-orang queer di Thailand yang terdiskriminasi,” ujarnya.

Direktur Eksekutif Koalisi Pasifik Asia untuk Kesehatan Seksual Pria (APCOM), Midnight Poonkasetwattana mengakui hal ini.

“Banyak orang tidak tahu bahwa kami tidak memiliki undang-undang anti-diskriminasi. Komunitas transgender kami gendernya pun tidak diakui dalam dokumen legal,” ujarnya.

Meski begitu, secara keseluruhan Langit tetap merasa lebih aman berada di Thailand.

“Kantor aku sangat ramah terhadap queer, tapi orang-orang Indonesianya [yang bekerja di sini] enggak, aku masih dengar gunjingan homofobik dari mereka,” ujar Langit.

“Tapi aku sudah tidak peduli. Kalau misalnya hal ini bereskalasi juga tinggal dilaporkan. Karena sekarang aku di Thailand, aku lebih terlindungi.”

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Euro 2024: Jadwal pertandingan, ‘grup neraka’, dan favorit juara

Italia, Euro 2024
Keterangan gambar,Juara bertahan Italia akan berada di Grup B Euro 2024 bersama Spanyol, Kroasia, dan Albania.

Penantian para pecinta sepakbola hampir berakhir. Sebanyak 16 tim sepak bola nasional papan atas Eropa akan mulai berkompetisi di Piala Eropa 2024 atau Euro 2024 dalam waktu kurang dari 10 hari.

Ketika 16 negara telah terbagi ke dalam empat grup dan jadwal pertandingan telah ditentukan, berikut rincian lengkap untuk Euro 2024.

Kapan turnamen akan dimulai?

Digelar di Jerman, Euro 2024 resmi dimulai pada 14 Juni mendatang di Allianz Arena, kandang Bayern Munich.

Skotlandia akan menjadi tim yang menghadapi tuan rumah pada pertandingan pertama turnamen tersebut.

Akan ada dua hingga empat pertandingan setiap hari di babak grup hingga 26 Juni dan babak 16 besar akan dimulai pada 29 Juni.

Dari empat grup, terdapat dua ‘grup neraka’ yang masing-masing dihuni setidaknya dua tim kuat. Kedua grup itu adalah Grup B dan Grup D.

Grup B berisi Spanyol, Kroasia, Italia, Albania. Sedangkan Grup D berisi Polandia, Belanda, Austria, Prancis.

Anda bisa mengunduh kalender Euro 2024 melalui tautan ini

kalender Euro 2024

Ajang ini akan berakhir pada hari Minggu, 14 Juli di Olympiastadion, Berlin.

Euro 2024 akan menjadi turnamen pertama yang diselenggarakan Jerman sejak reunifikasi. PIala Eropa edisi tahun 1988 diadakan di Jerman Barat.

Kapan tiket pertandingan mulai dijual?

Tiket pertandingan awalnya dijual untuk umum dari tanggal 3 hingga 26 Oktober 2023 lalu dan dialokasikan melalui undian.

Fase penjualan utama tiket UEFA EURO 2024 sekarang telah berakhir.

UEFA memperingatkan para penggemar bahwa penjual tiket tidak resmi berupaya mengeksploitasi tingginya permintaan dengan menawarkan tiket palsu di pasar sekunder.

Siapa difavoritkan menjadi juara?

Inggris adalah favorit semua bandar taruhan di Inggris pada saat artikel ini disusun, dengan peluang 3/1.

Prancis di urutan kedua dengan peluang 4/1 dan tuan rumah Jerman di urutan ketiga dengan 5/1.

Georgia, Albania, Slovenia dan Slovakia dianggap sebagai tim dengan kemungkinan juara paling kecil, masing-masing antara 200/1 hingga 900/1.

Bagaimana pembagian grup Euro 2024?

Grup A: Jerman, Skotlandia, Hungaria, Swiss

Grup B: Spanyol, Kroasia, Italia, Albania

Grup C: Slovenia, Denmark, Serbia, Inggris

Grup D: Polandia, Belanda, Austria, Prancis

Grup E: Belgia, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraina

Grup F: Turki, Georgia, Portugal, Republik Cekohttps://flo.uri.sh/visualisation/18266670/embed?auto=1

Bagaimana cara menonton pertandingan di Indonesia?

Grup MNC memegang hak siar tunggal Euro 2024 di Indonesia. Publik memiliki opsi menyaksikan tayangan pertandingan secara gratis dan berbayar melalui siaran yang mereka sajikan.

Bagaimana performa tim peserta Euro 2024?

Menjelang turnamen, enam tim tidak terkalahkan selama kualifikasi. Mereka adalah Prancis, Inggris, Portugal, Belgia, Romania, dan Hungaria.

Portugal adalah satu-satunya tim yang memenangkan setiap pertandingan. Mereka mengakhiri kualifikasi dengan mencetak 36 gol dan hanya kebobolan dua kali.

Spanyol dan Skotlandia hanya kalah satu kali, sedangkan Turki dan Austria juga lolos dengan rekor tak kalah impresif.

Meskipun Portugal memenangkan setiap pertandingan kualifikasi, mereka tidak memiliki pencetak gol terbanyak dalam fase kualifikasi.

Pencetak gol terbanyak adalah penyerang Inter Milan, Romelu Lukaku, yang mencetak 14 gol dalam delapan pertandingan untuk Belgia.

Stadion mana saja yang akan menggelar laga?

Allianz Arena dan Olympiastadion akan terlihat sepanjang turnamen. Total ada 10 kota tuan rumah, termasuk Cologne dan Dortmund.

Signal Iduna Park, kandang klub Borussia Dortmund, akan menjadi tuan rumah pertandingan di Grup B, D dan F, sekaligus terpilih sebagai salah satu venue babak 16 besar dan semifinal.

Berikut daftar lengkap tempat penyelenggaraan turnamen tersebut:

  • Berlin: Olympiastadion (70.000 tempat duduk)
  • Cologne: Cologne Stadium (47.000)
  • Dortmund: BVB Stadion Dortmund (66.000)
  • Dusseldorf: Dusseldorf Arena (47.000)
  • Frankfurt: Frankfurt Arena (48.000)
  • Gelsenkirchen: Arena AufSchalke (50.000)
  • Hamburg: Volksparkstadion Hamburg (50.000)
  • Leipzig: Leipzig Stadium (42.000)
  • Munich: Munich Football Arena (67.000)
  • Stuttgart: Stuttgart Arena (54.000)

Siapa pesepakbola populer yang tak akan berlaga di Euro 2024?

Penyerang Manchester City, Erling Haaland, dan gelandang Arsenal, Martin Odegaard, tidak akan ambil bagian dalam kompetisi ini karena Norwegia gagal lolos.

Di grup kualifikasi yang sama dengan Spanyol dan Skotlandia, mereka tidak mengumpulkan cukup poin untuk mendapatkan tempat otomatis dan juga tidak bisa lolos melalui babak play-off.

Swedia adalah negara penting lainnya yang tidak akan ambil bagian di Jerman, karena gagal lolos untuk pertama kalinya sejak tahun 1996.

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Hamas seeks ‘complete halt’ to war in Gaza proposal response

Getty Images A boy walks through rubble in Gaza

Hamas says it has submitted its response to a US-backed plan for a ceasefire in Gaza, with a senior group official telling the BBC that it still requires an Israeli commitment to a permanent ceasefire.

In a statement, the group, and its Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) allies, expressed “readiness to positively” reach a deal.

The proposed ceasefire plan – which was endorsed by the UN security council on Monday night – calls for a six-week ceasefire that would eventually become permanent.

Qatar and Egypt – who, along with the US, have mediated negotiations between Israel and Hamas – confirmed that the Palestinian group had submitted its reply.

In its statement on Tuesday evening, Hamas called for a “complete halt” to fighting in Gaza.

“The response prioritises the interests of our Palestinian people and emphasises the necessity of a complete halt to the ongoing aggression on Gaza,” Hamas and the PIJ said.

The groups added that they were ready “to engage positively to reach an agreement that ends this war”.

White House national security spokesperson John Kirby said it was “helpful” that Hamas had submitted a response and that US officials were “evaluating” the group’s requests.

Earlier on Tuesday US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had “reaffirmed his commitment” to the Gaza ceasefire plan and the world was waiting for the Hamas response.

The proposal set out by President Biden last month involves an initial six-week ceasefire, with Hamas releasing some hostages in exchange for Israel releasing an undefined number of Palestinian prisoners.

A second phase would see the remaining hostages released by Hamas and a total withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza as part of a “permanent” ceasefire, but the latter would still be subject to negotiations.

The actual Israeli proposal – reportedly lengthier than the summary presented by Mr Biden – has not been made public and it is unclear whether it varies from what the president conveyed in his statement on 31 May. It was presented to Hamas days prior to Mr Biden’s speech.

Mr Netanyahu has acknowledged his war cabinet has authorised the plan but has not voiced unequivocally support for it. Far right members of his cabinet have threatened to quit his coalition and trigger its collapse if the deal goes forward, seeing it as surrender to Hamas.

As Mr Blinken met Israeli officials in Tel Aviv on Tuesday, protesters outside his hotel held American flags calling for an agreement. Many held pictures of hostages and chanted: “SOS, USA”, and “we trust you, Blinken, seal a deal”.

Vicki Cohen, the mother of Nimrod Cohen, 19, an Israeli soldier who was kidnapped by Hamas on 7 October, held a banner showing his picture.

She told the BBC: “We come here to ask Blinken and the USA government to help us, to save us from our government. Our prime minister doesn’t want to bring our loved ones back, we need their help to pressure our government.”

He then travelled to the Dead Sea for a conference of Arab leaders calling for greater aid access into Gaza, where he said Israel “can do more”. He also announced $404 million in new aid for Palestinians, urging other countries to also “step up” assistance.

The war began after Hamas attacked Israel on 7 October, killing about 1,200 people and taking 251 others back to Gaza as hostages. The Hamas-run health ministry in Gaza says more than 37,000 people have been killed in the Israeli offensive since then.

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The impact of recognising a Palestinian state

Reuters A Palestinian girl carries cans to collect water in Khan Younis, in the southern Gaza Strip, on 22 May
Many countries say they will only recognise a Palestinian state as part of a long-term political solution

As fighting and suffering continues in Gaza, and violence grows in the West Bank, prospects of the Palestinian people gaining their own state might seem further away than ever.

The decision by several European countries to formally recognise the existence of a Palestinian state will not overcome the reality that such ambition still faces huge obstacles.

But the declarations by Ireland, Spain and Norway will put pressure on other countries in Europe – including the UK, France and Germany – to follow them in supporting Palestinian self-determination.

“This is extremely significant,” one Arab diplomat said. “It reflects European frustration with the Israeli government’s refusal to listen.

“And it puts pressure on the EU to follow suit.”

But Israeli ministers insist this will encourage Hamas and reward terrorism, further reducing the chances of a negotiated settlement.

Most countries – about 139 in all – formally recognise a Palestinian state.

On May 10, 143 out of 193 members of the United Nations’ general assembly voted in favour of a Palestinian bid for full UN membership, something that is only open to states.

Palestine currently has a kind of enhanced observer status at the UN, which gives them a seat but not a vote in the assembly.

It is also recognised by various international organisations including the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

A minority of European countries already recognise a Palestinian state. They comprise Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria which adopted the position 1988; and others including Sweden, Cyprus and Malta.

But many European nations – and the United States – say they will recognise a Palestinian state only as part of a long-term political solution to the conflict in the Middle East.

This is often referred to as the ‘two-state solution’ where both Israelis and Palestinians agree to have their own states with their own borders.

European countries and the US differ over when they should recognise a Palestinian state.

Ireland, Spain and Norway say they are doing so now to kick-start a political process. They argue there will be a sustained solution to the current crisis only if both sides can aim at some kind of political horizon.

These countries are also responding to domestic political pressures to show more support for Palestinians.

In the past, the position of many Western countries was that Palestinian statehood should be a prize for a final peace agreement.

But Lord Cameron, the UK Foreign Secretary, and some other European countries have in recent months shifted their positions, saying the recognition of Palestinian statehood could come earlier, to help drive momentum towards a political settlement.

In February, President Macron of France said: “The recognition of a Palestinian state is not a taboo for France.”

And earlier this month, France supported Palestinian membership of the UN in the general assembly vote.

The US has privately discussed this issue with European allies but is more cautious and wants a clearer sense of what the policy would mean in practice.

So the key debate behind the scenes is about when these holdout countries should recognise a Palestinian state: when formal peace talks begin between Israelis and Palestinians, when Israel and Saudi Arabia normalise diplomatic relations, when Israel fails to undertake certain actions, or when the Palestinians take certain actions.

In other words, they want recognition of the state of Palestine to be a big moment designed to achieve a diplomatic outcome.

“It is a big card that Western countries have to play,” one Western official said. “We don’t want to throw it away.”

The problem is that recognising a Palestinian state is largely a symbolic gesture if it does not also address the vital concomitant questions.

What should the borders be? Where should the capital be located? What should both sides do first to make it happen?

These are difficult questions that have not been agreed – or even answered – satisfactorily for decades.

As of today, a few more countries in Europe now believe there should be a Palestinian state.

Supporters will cheer the move, opponents will decry it.

The grim reality for Palestinians on the ground is unlikely to change.

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Domestic tourism soars in China but foreigners stay away

BBC/KATHERINA TSE A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is to pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing
A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing

With the Chinese economy facing massive challenges, there have been concerns over its growth potential, at least in the immediate future.

Yet a key exception is emerging in the form of domestic tourism.

Last week’s five-day public holiday to mark labour day saw 295 million trips made within China, according to figures from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. This was 28% higher than pre-pandemic figures recorded in 2019.

The Transport Ministry’s figures are also staggering: 92 million rail trips; almost 10 million air trips and 1.25 billion highway journeys.

However, this comes as international arrivals continue to lag, with foreigners currently entering China at barely 30% of 2019 levels. Why the disparity?

The beautiful historical river town of Wuzhen, a short drive from Shanghai, is considered one of China’s top visitor sites for travellers of all types. When we arrive the little pathways and old bridges which cross narrow waterways are filled with visitors.

A popular thing to do in Wuzhen is to pose for photos dressed in traditional hanfu clothing – as if you have really been transported back hundreds of years.

Two women in their 20s, friends since high school, are visiting from Jilin Province in the north east. After arriving, they spend an hour getting their hair done in an elaborate imperial-era style – and they are full of praise for Wuzhen’s classical beauty.

We ask if, following the post-Covid opening up, many of their family and other friends have been travelling much? “Of course, after the pandemic, we’re all visiting other places.”

Nearby a local man who is selling ice-creams also says tourist numbers are “not that bad lately”.

As good as before Covid? “Almost the same,” he replies.

Shopkeeper Wang Ying, who sells traditional snacks, echoes this sentiment with a big smile on her face. “Business is going well, and it’ll only get better.”

BBC/KATHERINA TSE Wuzhen is considered one of China's top visitor sites
Wuzhen is considered one of China’s top visitor sites

All this will be seen as good news for the Chinese government. It’s been saying that a push on domestic consumption can counter the significant faltering portions of the economy.

Major players in the once-mighty property sector are struggling to stay afloat, local government debt continues to rise, and persistent youth unemployment has left highly qualified university graduates uncertain of their future.

Amid all these challenges, the Communist Party has set a target of “around 5%” GDP growth for this year. Apart from the fact that analysts have long questioned the veracity of the country’s official growth figures, economists are also asking how such a target can be reached, in any genuine sense, in 2024 without significant extra stimulus.

One lifeline could be a more buoyant travel scene which could bring broader business opportunities and greater service industry employment.

Schubert Lou, chief operating officer at travel agency Trip.com, told the BBC: “We’ve seen very strong domestic travel demand with search volumes in hotels up 67% compared to last year, and flight volumes up 80%.”

Tourism industry consultant Peng Han from Travel Daily is following the investment trail to see how the business community really views the possibilities in the sector.

“With famous international hotel brands – like Intercontinental, Marriott and Hilton – you just have to look at their growth in China in 2023,” he says. “Then check the performance goals for these large hotel groups in 2024 which have also been set relatively high. This shows that they are very optimistic about the growth potential of the Chinese market.”

But, while the volume of local travellers might be up, Mr Peng does point to the problem of per capita consumption which remains persistently low.

He says general uncertainty about the Chinese economy is putting more emphasis on saving, so people are looking for good value options. They are going on holidays and paying for things but doing so much more frugally.

This is where an increase in big-spending foreigners could help. But they are simply not travelling to China in the numbers they used to.

In 2019, nearly 98 million international visitors came to the country. Last year it was only 35 million – including business trips, students and the like. Mr Lou describes the domestic versus international market as “uneven”.

For many in the tourism industry here specialising in services for foreign travellers, “uneven” would be an understatement. Three years of harsh Covid prevention measures drove down arrivals from other countries, but that alone can’t account for the current situation.

Huang Songshan, the head of the Centre for Tourism Research in the School of Business and Law at Australia’s Edith Cowan University, blames this weakness in part to “the shifting geopolitical landscape globally”.

Getty Images Chinese performer
China’s culture and heritage has traditionally been a big draw for tourists

In the peer-reviewed East Asia Forum, he pointed to a 2023 survey carried out by the Pew Research Centre, writing that, “Most individuals in Western nations hold unfavourable views towards China. The Chinese government’s tightening grip on societal regulations could potentially cause discomfort for foreign travellers in China.”

Official travel advice from some governments echo this sentiment, at times quite harshly.

Washington warns potential travellers to “reconsider travel to Mainland China due to the arbitrary enforcement of local laws, including in relation to exit bans, and the risk of wrongful detentions”.

Australia advises “a high degree of caution” warning that “Australians may be at risk of arbitrary detention or harsh enforcement of local laws, including broadly defined National Security Laws”.

The political environment has also taken a toll on flight availability and price. This is especially the case with connections to and from North America. Last month’s 332 scheduled round trips between China and the US contrasts with 1,506 in April 2019.

As a result, finding a seat on a direct flight can be extremely difficult and those that are available are very expensive.

President Xi Jinping made a speech at a dinner on the sidelines of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in San Francisco last November addressing this point. “Today, President Biden and I reached important consensus,” he told the crowd.

“Our two countries will roll out more measures to facilitate travels and promote people-to-people exchanges, including increasing direct passenger flights, holding a high-level dialogue on tourism, and streamlining visa application procedures. We hope that our two peoples will make more visits, contacts and exchanges and write new stories of friendship in the new era.”

Washington has since increased the number of Chinese airline flights permitted to land – but only from 35 per week to 50. It is still well short of the 150 weekly trips pre-Covid.

The Biden administration is coming under pressure from unions and US airlines to not increase this any further because, they argue, Chinese airlines have an unfair advantage over them as they have state support; don’t face the same onerous Chinese regulations; and, crucially, can fly over Russian airspace, making trips shorter and cheaper.

A letter to the US government from the Chair of the House Committee on China, Mike Gallagher, and the committee’s top Democrat representative, Raja Krishnamoorthi, reads: “Should the US-China passenger carrier market expand without the US government addressing these significant issues, US aviation workers, travellers and airlines will pay a hefty price tag.”

Mr Lou says the frequency of international flight connections is definitely having an impact.

“What we are seeing right now, based on civil aviation data, is that inbound flight capacity won’t get back to even 80% of 2019 [levels] by the end of 2024.”

Then there are other potential turnoffs for those considering travelling in China, like the country’s state-of-the-art phone app payment and booking systems which work very smoothly for Chinese citizens and residents, but which can be an enormous headache if you have just arrived.

There are certain sites, transport options, and purchases which can only be accessed via Chinese electronic apps which are, at times, only available in Chinese.

Professor Chen Yong at Switzerland’s EHL Hospitality Business School is an authority on the economics of tourism in China. He thinks that hurdles relating to payment and booking apps can pose a real problem.

“Technologies such as social network websites, online maps, payment apps, among others, which foreigners have long been accustomed to using, are either unavailable or inaccessible when they travel to China,” he says.

“On the other hand, there are Chinese alternatives to these technologies that remain inaccessible to foreigners due to language barriers and differences in user habits. We need to bridge this divide because it affects the tourist industry badly.”

Back in Wuzhen, the presence of international travellers is much smaller than in years gone by, but there are still a few foreign faces in the crowd.

An Italian couple says the process of linking up to and using China’s payment apps was a challenge but that it was not insurmountable, though they add, with a laugh, that it is “much, much, much easier” if you have a Chinese friend to help you.

BBC/KATHERINA TSE Woman and child pose for selfies
Chinese officials have acknowledged that the foreign traveller numbers have been low but they are trying to turn this around

Eliseo, from California, says he has had problems making payments to small vendors who don’t accept credit cards and really no longer deal with cash. Another hurdle for him has been his bank at home which has blocked some payments, flagging them as potentially fraudulent coming from China.

Chinese officials have acknowledged that the foreign traveller numbers have been low but they are now trying to turn this around.

One way they’re attempting to attract more foreign visitors is by increasing the number of countries whose citizens don’t need a visa to enter. Trip.com says this resulted in an almost immediate increase in passenger arrivals from Southeast Asia.

In 23 Chinese cities, transit passengers from more than 50 countries are also able to stay for a few days visa free if they have an onward ticket. In Shanghai, hotels above a three-star level have been told that they should prepare to deal with international credit cards and an initial batch of 50 taxis have also started accepting them.

However, Professor Chen says “it would be too optimistic to envision a long-term growth in China’s inbound tourism”.

“The key is to establish a culture that puts service providers in the shoes of foreign tourists. They should imagine themselves being a foreigner who can’t speak or read Chinese and who doesn’t have a Chinese mobile number, payments apps and so on.”

He says that the culture around this can’t be changed overnight.

Yet, in places like Wuzhen – where the local travellers have already returned – the tourism companies are hoping that incredible sites like theirs will eventually be too much for foreigners to resist as well.

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Lok Sabha 2024: The influencers driving India’s big election

BBC InfluencersBBCInfluencers like Ranting Gola (left) and Sham Sharma are using their social media presence to promote political parties

Just weeks before the first ballot was cast in this year’s Indian election, Prime Minister Narendra Modi was at an event in Delhi rubbing shoulders with people known by names like BeerBiceps and Curly Tales.

The event – an awards show, congratulating some of the country’s top social media stars on their work – was an acknowledgement of the power of the influencer which a few years ago may have seemed unimaginable.

And as politicians prepared to battle it out for India’s billion votes, these influencers were being lined up to play a crucial role in reaching the young, the disinterested and the disillusioned.

But even as some celebrate social media’s democratisation of the media – a place where any one can share their views freely – others paint a darker picture, one where threats are rife, and the truth can be set aside for the right pay cheque.

A decade ago, you would have struggled to find anyone calling themselves an “influencer”.

But now, says Vinay Deshpande, co-founder of Rajneethi, a political management consultant firm, “it’s become a profession”.

“I know teenagers who are doing this part-time to earn pocket money.”

Pocket money underplays the earning potential somewhat, however. At the lower end, people can charge around 2,000 rupees ($24; £19) a day, but top influencers can pull in about 500,000 rupees for a post – equivalent to the monthly salary of someone in top-level management.

The creator of the Ranting Gola channel revealed to the BBC that political parties and election management firms have offered as much as “100,000 to 500,000 rupees for a single campaign”.

It is no small amount – but then, it could turn the tide in a candidate’s favour.

Influencers
Presentational grey line

Mr Deshpande says they have helped an opposition candidate win an assembly election by pushing out content through a curated list of local influencers with a small but active following.

“Social media content is powerful and can influence the way a person feels about an issue,” Mr Deshpande says. “It gives social currency to a belief or opinion – but this can lead to a lack of critical thinking about an issue,” he adds.

Preethi Aggarwal, 25, is one of those who turns to apps like Instagram, YouTube and Twitter to help her understand the news.

Like thousands of others, Ms Aggarwal follows a bunch of “political influencers”, or people who talk about politics on social media to “really understand what’s going on”.

“News can get boring and complicated sometimes. I think these people [influencers] make it fun and easier to understand,” she says, adding the context and their own perspective help her form her opinions.

But the problem is, whose perspective is she getting?

PMO India / YouTube InfluencersPMO India / YouTubePM Modi congratulated Ranveer Allahbadia (left, known as BeerBiceps) and other influencers at a recent event

YouTuber Samdish Bhatia reveals numerous politicians have reached out to him, especially in the months before this election, offering him millions of rupees to interview them.

“But they wanted me to share questions in advance or get the video approved before it’s published,” he says, adding that he declined the offers because he “likes to maintain editorial control”.

The particular trend for longer form, slightly chummy interviews – where politicians get to show off their human side – is particularly vulnerable to management, says Joyojeet Pal, an associate professor at the University of Michigan.

“Many of these interviews are carefully managed by politicians,” Mr Pal says.

But even if they aren’t, a gentler style of questioning can also blur the line between interview and promotion, says Mr Pal.

“If your questions aren’t holding power to account, then the interview just becomes a platform for easy publicity.”

But for Mr Pal, this is just one of the problems he sees with politics on social media.

In a recent research paper, he examined some of India’s top influencers and who they interviewed, finding BJP leaders were featured more often than opposition leaders.

His research also found an overall drop in the number of accounts posting content critical of the incumbent government in recent years, while the amount of pro-BJP content had increased.

“This hints at a growing hesitancy among people to be openly critical of the government whereas there seems to be more confidence in putting up polarising content or content that supports the government’s ideologies,” Mr Pal says.

“And this is dangerous for democracy,” he adds.

Getty Images InfluencersGetty ImagesEven in the most remote areas, Indians have access to a mobile phone and internet

Influencers supporting the opposition certainly suggested they were working in a hostile environment.

A number who post content that’s critical of the government declined to speak to the BBC for this piece citing fear of repercussions by the government. They also run their channels under pseudonyms to keep their identities secret.

The Ranting Gola told the BBC that she has often received comments that are abusive or threatening because of the videos she posts and that her Instagram account has been disabled numerous times, even though the platform hasn’t given her a clear reason for doing so.

She also only spoke to the BBC on the condition that her name not be revealed.

The BJP government has denied allegations that it has clamped down on dissent and free speech.

But even pro-BJP YouTuber Sham Sharma told the BBC that freedom of speech could be a problem in India:

0:52YouTuber Sham Sharma talks about the positives and perils of sharing his views online.

But even given these concerns, opposition parties are using the same influencer system to reach voters in what they say is a difficult environment.

“The mainstream media has been taken over by the BJP,” alleges Supriya Srinate, who heads social media for the Congress party.

“Our funds have been frozen; we have no money to advertise,” she adds, referring to action taken by India’s tax department weeks before the elections. Congress leaders have accused the government of political vendetta, but the government has denied the allegation and said that the federal department was doing its job independently.

Influencers, Ms Srinate argues, are a good way to reach voters as a result of these alleged hurdles, explaining the Congress has been working with “volunteers” who believe in the party’s ideology and want to share its work on social media.

Ankit Lal, former political advisor of the opposition Aam Aadmi Party (AAP), agrees that influencers have helped democratise the publicity landscape.

Akash Banerjee, a former journalist who runs the YouTube channel, The DeshBhakt, argues that influencers are also able to push boundaries more than the traditional media can.

He cites the video ‘Is India becoming a dictatorship?’ – made by popular content creator Dhruv Rathee, who is based in Germany – which takes on the government directly, and has been viewed about 24 million times on YouTube so far. The government hasn’t reacted to the video yet.

“After the video, the term ‘dictatorship’ has popped up more in conversations, and this is something that has never happened before,” Mr Banerjee says.

“Our job as influencers may not be to open the window and check if it’s really raining, but we owe it to the nation to take a look outside the window and let people know if dark clouds are approaching and that they can do something about it by voting.”

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Baltimore sues owner and manager of ‘unseaworthy’ Dali over bridge collapse

Getty Images An aerial view the morning after the bridge collapseGetty ImagesThe Dali was a ‘clearly unseaworthy’ ship with ‘an incompetent crew’, the city of Baltimore argued in a lawsuit filed Monday

Baltimore has sued the operators of the container ship that hit and destroyed one of the US city’s main bridges last month, killing six people.

The city says the Dali was “clearly unseaworthy” and accuses its owners and manager of negligence.

The ship’s Singapore-based owner and manager have already asked a court to limit their liability.

The region is reeling from the closure of its busiest maritime transit port after the span collapsed on 26 March.

“None of this should have happened,” attorneys representing the Baltimore mayor and city council argued in a federal lawsuit.

The city is asking the US District Court of Maryland for a jury trial to hold the defendants fully liable.

Naming the Dali’s owner, Grace Ocean Private Limited, and its manager, Synergy Marine Private Limited, the suit alleges the Francis Scott Key Bridge’s collapse was a direct result of their “gross negligence, and recklessness, and as a result of the unseaworthiness of the Vessel”.

On 1 April, Grace Ocean and Synergy Marine petitioned the same federal court in Maryland to cap its responsibility for the incident.

Citing a pre-Civil War maritime law, the pair of companies estimated their liability for the vessel and the cargo’s value at $43.6m (£35m).

Monday’s court filing from the city of Baltimore rebuts that number as “substantially less than the amount that will be claimed for losses and damages arising out of the Dali’s allision with the Key Bridge”.

The path taken by the cargo ship – which was exiting the Port of Baltimore under the Key Bridge – is “no stranger to large freighters”, the city’s representatives wrote.

They said the vessel “had been experiencing an inconsistent power supply” that was either not investigated or not fixed.

“The Dali left port anyway, despite its clearly unseaworthy condition,” said the lawsuit.

The filing also says the Dali was manned by “an incompetent crew that was inattentive to its duties” and “lacked proper training”.

Contains upsetting scenes.Tracking data shows the path of the Dali container towards the bridge

On Friday, port officials opened a third temporary channel for boats to enter and exit the corridor, but these channels can only sustain about 15% of pre-collapse commercial activity.

A fourth channel, that will allow most traffic back into the port, is expected to open by the end of the month.

Darrell Wilson, an attorney who represents Synergy Marine and is also handling media inquiries on behalf of Grace Ocean, told the BBC it would be inappropriate to comment on the litigation while federal investigations into the collapse were ongoing.

New drone video shows close-up view of debris from the Baltimore bridge collapse

Six construction workers who were fixing potholes died when the bridge collapsed. Two of the bodies have yet to be recovered.

Workers are still extracting thousands of tonnes of debris from the water and from atop the stationary Dali, whose original schedule would have seen it arrive at a Sri Lankan port on Monday.

Apart from two of the ship’s pilots, 21 crew members – almost all of whom are of Indian origin – remain on the ship. There is no timeline yet for when the crew will disembark or head back to sea.

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Kementan Dorong Negara ASEAN Perkuat Strategi Ketahanan Pangan

Presiden Joko Widodo Jokowi saat pertemuan dengan sejumlah negara-negara ASEAN, di Jakarta, Selasa (5/9). Foto: Istimewa
Presiden Joko Widodo Jokowi saat pertemuan dengan sejumlah negara-negara ASEAN, di Jakarta, Selasa (5/9). Foto: Istimewa

RM.id  Rakyat Merdeka – Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan) selaku perwakilan Asean Ministers on Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF) Indonesia mendorong semua negara KTT ASEAN untuk memperkuat strategi pembangunan ketahanan pangan.

Khususnya dalam merespon tantangan global mulai dari pesatnya pertumbuhan populasi, pemulihan dampak pandemi, ketegangan geopolitik hingga peningkatan intensitas perubahan iklim.

Menteri Pertanian (Mentan) Syahrul Yasin Limpo (SYL) mengatakan, persoalan dan isu ketahanan pangan membutuhkan kolaborasi dan sinergitas yang erat terutama dalam mengoptimalkan kepentingan ASEAN pada sektor perdagangan, transportasi, keuangan dan sektor terkait lainnya.

“Selain itu, kolaborasi dengan negara mitra Asean seperti China, Jepang, Korea dan Inggris juga perlu diintensifkan untuk mendorong sistem pertanian dan pangan yang berkelanjutan,” ujar SYL, Selasa (5/9).

Sejauh ini, menurut SYL, beberapa negara mitra dialog Asean telah menyatakan komitmennya dalam mendukung implementasi deklarasi ini. Pemerintah Inggris melalui kantor Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) di Jakarta bahkan telah menyampaikan dukungannya melalui pelaksanaan kajian atau perumusan metodologi tingkat ketahanan pangan.

“Sementara pemerintah China telah menyatakan komitmennya melalui Action Plan on Green Agricultural Development dan Pemerintah Jepang melalui Midori Cooperation Plan. Kedua project plan tersebut telah mencakup berbagai rencana kegiatan kerjasama yang menitikberatkan kepada kesesuaian dan kebutuhan teknologi dalam mewujudkan pertanian yang tangguh dan berkelanjutan,” jelasnya.

Sebagai informasi, pertemuan para pemimpin Asean Leaders Declaration on Strengthening Food Security and Nutrition in Response to Crisis menjadi salah satu capaian pertemuan Asean Summit ke-43 yang diadakan tanggal 5 September 2023 di Jakarta Convention Center.

Deklarasi yang diusulkan oleh AMAF ini disusun atas dasar urgensi pemangku kepentingan di negara ASEAN dalam menyusun strategi membangun ketahanan pangan di kawasan, khususnya dalam merespon tantangan global mulai dari pesatnya pertumbuhan populasi, pemulihan dampak pandemi Covid-19, ketegangan geopolitik dan peningkatan intensitas perubahan iklim.

Berdasarkan kesepakatan ini, deklarasi ini menitikberatkan pada dua strategi penanganan krisis pangan yaitu, aksi cepat Asean dalam menghadapi krisis pangan dan gizi serta meningkatkan kesiapsiagaan ASEAN dalam mengantisipasi krisis pangan di masa mendatang melalui penguatan ketangguhan serta keberlanjutan (sustainability) sistem pertanian dan pangan.

AMAF telah sepakat untuk menyusun rencana aksi Asean Regional Guideline on Sustainable Agriculture sebagai panduan implementasi panduan pertanian berkelanjutan di masing-masing negara Asean.

Selain itu, fasilitasi akses pembiayaan bagi petani skala kecil, pasokan pupuk yang memadai, dan investasi yang ditujukan untuk ketangguhan terhadap dampak perubahan iklim dan pertanian berkelanjutan juga akan terus ditingkatkan.

Di samping program-program untuk mengatasi food loss and waste (FLW) seperti Food Rescue, Save Food, dan Food Bank juga akan terus digalakan secara intensif.https://gayunggoyang.com/wp-admin

Rehabilitasi Hutan Mangrove, Luhut Tekankan Peran Masyarakat Pesisir

Menko Kemaritiman dan Investasi Luhut Pandjaitan. (Foto: Instagram)
Menko Kemaritiman dan Investasi Luhut Pandjaitan. (Foto: Instagram)

RM.id  Rakyat Merdeka – Menko Kemaritiman dan Investasi Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan mengatakan, Pemerintah tengah berupaya mengurangi emisi karbon dengan merehabilitasi 600 ribu hektar hutan mangrove. Menurut dia, keberhasilan program ini bisa tercapai jika semua pihak mampu memberdayakan masyarakat pesisir. 

Hal tersebut disampaikan Luhut di akun Instagram miliknya @luhut.pandjaitan, Senin (26/2/2024). Luhut mengatakan, Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Uni Eropa mencatat selama 12 bulan berturut-turut, bumi telah mengalami suhu lebih panas 1,5 derajat celsius dibandingkan era praindustri 1850-1900. Fenomena ini adalah yang pertama kalinya dalam catatan sejarah.

Hal ini juga membuat kemunculan sejumlah fenomena alam yang mengubah beberapa bagian bumi menjadi tidak sama lagi dengan kondisi beberapa abad silam. Seperti peningkatan suhu bumi sebanyak 1,5 derajat celsius yang menyebabkan kerugian besar bagi ekosistem seperti gelombang panas, kekeringan, banjir, hingga kelangkaan air yang akan kita jumpai dalam beberapa waktu ke depan. 

“Ini adalah sebuah wake up call bagi kita semua untuk melakukan upaya mitigasi dalam mengurangi emisi karbon,” tulis Luhut. 

Menghadapi hal itu, lanjut Luhut, pihaknya telah mengambil langkah cepat bersama World Bank beserta Kementerian/Lembaga terkait termasuk TNI Angkatan Darat yaitu berfokus pada rehabilitasi 75 ribu hektare dan mengkonservasi 400 ribu hektare mangrove sebagai bagian rencana besar Rehabilitasi 600 ribu hektare Mangrove di Kawasan Pesisir.

“Potensi besar mangrove yang amat penting dalam penyerapan karbon yang lebih tinggi secara alami, akan kami manfaatkan antara lain untuk transformasi ekonomi hijau dan akan terus mengarah ke karbon biru yang lebih ramah lingkungan serta berkelanjutan,” ucap Luhut. 

Menurut Luhut, hal ini penting mengingat Indonesia berkomitmen mengendalikan perubahan iklim global dan rehabilitasi mangrove diharapkan dapat mendukung penurunan emisi sesuai dokumen kontribusi nasional (NDC).

Luhut menilai, keberhasilan program ini akan dicapai jika integrasi seluruh stakeholder mampu memberdayakan masyarakat di sekitar pesisir. “Dengan begitu ekosistem mangrove di pesisir Indonesia tidak hanya menjadi tempat penyimpanan karbon, tetapi juga mampu menjadi sumber alternatif baru mata pencaharian bagi masyarakat sekitar ekosistem mangrove berada,” pungkasnya.https://gayunggoyang.com/wp-admin

Andi Amran Masuk Radar Prabowo

Mentan Harus Berani Kotor, Tapi Bukan Calon Koruptor

Anggota Komisi IV DPR Firman Soebagyo. (Foto: Ist)
Anggota Komisi IV DPR Firman Soebagyo. (Foto: Ist)

RM.id  Rakyat Merdeka – Calon Presiden Prabowo Subianto mengatakan, Andi Amran Sulaiman masuk radar calon menteri pertanian (mentan) periode 2024-2029. Dalam penilaiannya, Amran merupakan figur yang mampu membangun sektor pertanian sangat luar biasa dan membawa Indonesia mencapai swasembada.

Anggota Komisi IV DPR Firman Soebagyo tidak heran jika Amran masuk dalam ja­jaran kabinet di Pemerintahan Prabowo Subianto-Gibran Rakabuming. Sebab, seorang menteri pertanian memang harus paham sektor pertanian. Dan lebih penting dari itu, dia harus berani kotor dalam arti yang positif.

“Ya karena yang namanya pertanian kan identik dengan sawah, dengan lahan, ya dia harus berani kotor. (Tapi) Ko­tor itu konotasinya bukan kotor menjadi koruptor. Tapi kotornya itu kakinya harus berani kena lumpur dan kena air. Itu filoso­finya,” kata Firman Soebagyo saat dihubungi Rakyat Merdeka, Minggu (18/2/2024).

Karena itu, sambung Fir­man, kriteria mentan ke depan, adalah figur yang benar-benar paham tentang masalah pertanian. Namun, paham pertanian ini bukan hanya mengetahui cara pemenuhan terhadap ma­salah pangan, kesediaan pangan, tapi bagaimana mendorong petani meningkatkan produksi pangan nasional. Jadi, amanat Undang-Undang Nomor 18 Tahun 2012 tentang Pangan yang mengamanahkan agar swasembada pangan menuju ke kedaulatan pangan bisa terwujud.

“Ini yang menjadi landasan utama. Sebab, pangan merupak­an amanat konstitusi, dan pangan itu adalah hak asasi manusia,” tegasnya.

Firman menegaskan, pemenu­han pangan merupakan hal yang sangat fundamental. Apalagi pada tahun 2030 nanti, jumlah populasi masyarakat Indonesia nanti pada tahun 2030 bakal tembus mencapai 300 jutaan penduduk.

“Semua ini harus dipenuhi pangannya, dan tentunya dari produk pangan dalam negeri, bukan impor,” tambahnya.

Sebelumnya, calon Presiden terpilih Prabowo Subianto me­nilai Mentan Andi Amran Su­laiman masuk sebagai kriteria menteri pada kabinet pemerin­tahannya.

Hal tersebut diungkapkannya saat memberikan sam­butan pada acara Pembinaan Penyuluh Pertanian dan Petani serta Food Estate Partisipatif di Kabupaten Sumedang, Selasa (30/1/2024).

“Menteri pertanian yang sekarang seorang praktisi. Dan mungkin Anda bisa menduga-duga siapa tahu kalau saya yang terima mandat, siapa yang kira-kira akan menjadi menteri pertanian di kabinet baru, kira-kira, mungkin. I want only do best,” ujar Prabowo.

Prabowo menilai, kemam­puan Amran dalam membangun sektor pertanian sangat luar biasa karena sukses memba­wa Indonesia mencapai swasembada. Amran, menurutnya, sosok panglima pangan yang menjaga kedaulatan pertanian nasional.

“Saya melihat kemampuan beliau dan tekad beliau (Andi Amran Sulaiman) yang baru 2 bulan menjabat sudah berbuat banyak dan sungguh-sungguh untuk bangsa ini,” katanya.

Prabowo pun menyampaikan terima kasih kepada Presiden Jokowi yang telah menunjuk kembali Amran sebagai menteri. Dalam pandangannya, Amran adalah petarung sekaligus pe­kerja keras yang memiliki tekad besar dalam memajukan sektor pertanian Indonesia.

“Saya berterima kasih ke­pada presiden Jokowi karena beliau menunjuk saudara Andi Amran sebagai menteri perta­nian. Seorang anak petani, anak babinsa, sebagai pakar, sebagai teknokrat dan pemimpin yang bertekad mengurus masalah pertanian,” jelasnya.https://gayunggoyang.com/wp-admin